An empire is a large composite, multi-ethnic or multinational political unit , usually created by conquest, and divided between dominant center and subordinate, sometimes far distant peripheries.
Imperialism is used to mean the actions and attitude which create or uphold such big political units--but also less obvious and direct kinds of control or domination by one people or country over others. ・・・・
Colonialism is something more specific and strictly political systems of role by one group over another , where the first claim the right ・・・to exercise exclusive sovereignty over the second and to shape its destiny.
Colonization refers to large scale population movements, where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabi9tants of the territory by such links.
The system rested on exploitation:tribute in cash, in kind, or in slaves sent from the peripheries to the imperial centre. Some contemporaries , and many later historians, believed that this reliance on subject peoples to play for the empire to sustain the relative wealth(and thus supposed idleness and decadence)of the rulers, and increasing to fight their wars for them too, gradually undermined Roman power and led to the empire's collapse.
we can surely speak of Rome's empire as a multi-ethnic or multiculural one , but also one where what a later age would call cultural assimilation-ism was vigorously practiced and widely accepted.
despite the political fragmentation, much of Europe possessed important elements of a common culture
at least among members of the ruling groups---it was, one could say, that commonality which produced the very idea of Europe, The Church and the use of Latin were naturally crucial in this and became ever more so.
Some popular African-American writers assert that 150 or 200 million Africans were enslaved or killed and that lower estimate is a racist evasion . The probable real total of 12 to 15 million victims is surely terrible enough.
Indigenous populations throughout the New World and on many Pacific islands were reduced to a fraction of their former numbers, of entirely wiped out. I parts of Africa, too the collision with Europe produced demographic catastrophe it has been estimated, for instance, that the population of the Belgian Congo diminished by nine of ten million in the decades following the con1uests.
Colonized areas were forced into acting as sources of under-priced raw materials for European industry and of cheap, often forced or enslaved labour.・・・Where there was not savage exploitation , there was utter neglect :colonial governments spent almost nothing on education, health care, social welfare, of infrastructure・・・・・
The positive case argues that , on the contrary, colonialism played economically progressive role. Colonial rule was the means to which European technology , culture and institutions---the things which had enabled Europe itself to develop and industrialize--were spread across the rest of the world.
page in may versions, more specifically northern Europeans sometimes called "Aryan' and 'Nordic' or particular nationalities like the English or Germans, were at the top. Many Asian peoples occupied intermediate positions, Some were acknowledged to possess considerable intelligence, and Indian , Chinese or Arab civilizations achievements could not be entirely denied . But they were widely believed to possess profound flaws in their collective character, being >congenitally dissolute,idle , dishonest, cruel and son on.
The late-Victorian propaganda of empire did not only stress modernization but standardly depicted its pioneers ---explorers, soldiers , missionaries , frontiersmen---as paragons of rationality maturity, and self-control, in stark contrast to the wild ,unruly, often childlike people they met and dominated.
If Africans of Indians had united against the colonialists, the colonization would have been impossible, except at staggering , unacceptable human and financial cost. But to do that , they would have had to think of themselves as 'Africans' or 'Indians' single people with shared interest in the first place. Before the 20th century, very few could even potentially do so.
このようにして、civilizing mission(page 95) 、文明化をしていく使命を「野蛮」な地域に対してはたしいくわけだが、
the responses to colonialism and to the West of Indian intellectuals were not simply polarized between imitation and reject, collaboration and resistance. They didn't accept colonialist claims about their own natural inferiority; but nor were they simpleminded enough to believe that 'Europe' was a single homogeneous entity. They know they could pick and choose among the things British rule and 'European culture' offered them--or sought to impose on them . They accepted some adapted some to their own purposes, rejected others.
The new idea of empire is like the ancient Roman and medieval Christian ones, ・・・・in that it is,or aspires to be a universal order. The United Stated, with its close allies, is the only force that can maintain global peace and just ---if necessary, by force,---no in the pursuit of a nationality or a power hungry agenda,but to uphold these universal values.
Such argument・・・probably and simply makes the United States sound more powerful than it really is. It underestimates the actual and potential tensions between universalism and narrower national interests in American thought ・・・・